Salud Dental Para Todos


Bibliografía científica sobre el daño del flúor en el agua de consumo de EEUU

Od. Marcelo Alberto Iruretagoyena

  • Los Problemas de la dosificación:

1.      Food chain fluoride now exceeds "optimal" intake Leverett DH. Fluorides and the Changing Prevalence of Dental Caries. Science 217: 26-30, July 1982. Environmental fluoride may be approaching a critical mass.

2.      Lee JR. Optimal fluoridation-the concept and its application to municipal water fluoridation. Western J Med; 122;431-6 May 1975

3.      Rose D & Marier JR. Environmental Fluoride 1977. National Research Council of Canada, No. 16081, Ottawa, July 1978.

4.      Shern et al. Enamel biopsy results of children receiving fluoride tablets. J Am Dent Assoc: 95: 310-14, Aug 1977. Dental enamel fluoride concentrations of unfluoridated children: those receiving fluoride supplements show no difference.

5.      Smith G. A surfeit of fluoride? Sci Pro Oxf:69;429-42, 1985.

6.      Waitrowski et al. Dietary fluoride intake of infants. Pediatrics; 55:517, 1975. Placental transfer fluoridates newborn, reduces available fluoride binding sites.

7.      Krook L. The Cornell Veterinarian; Vol. 60 (Supplement 8), 1979.

8.      Louw & vanWyk. J Dental Research, June 1981.

9.      Maduska et al. Placental transfer of intraveneous fluoride in the pregnant ewe. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 136:84, 1980.

  • Falta de beneficio dental

10.  Colquhoun J. Fluoridation in New Zealand: New evidence. Am Lab; 17(5)66-72, (6)98-102,1985.

11.  Colquhoun J. Child dental health differences in New Zealand. Community Health Studies; 11:85-90, 1987.

12.  Colquhoun J. Mann R. Address before the 56th Congress of the Australian and New Zealand Assoc. for the Advancement of Science, Jan 26, 1987. A reexamination of New Zealand's fluoridation trial (Hastings and Napier) finds gross irregularities in diagnostic procedures in Hastings and obfuscation of comparable caries decline in control city, Napier.

13.  Colquhoun J. Fluorides and the decline in tooth decay commenced before and indepently of fluoridation or other uses of fluoride.

14.  DePaola PF et al. Changesin caries prevalence of Massachusetts children over thirty years. J Dental Res; 60:360, 1981. Reports a decline in caries prevalence of 40-50 %, both in fluoridated and in unfluoridated communities.

15.  Diesindorf M. The mystery of declining tooth decay. Nature; 322:125-9, 1986.

16.  Disendorf M. A Re-examination of Australian fluoridation trials. Search: 17:256-61, 1986.

17.  Douglas et al. Impact of water fluoridation on dental practice and dental manpower. J am Dent Assoc; 84:355-67, 1972. When naturally fluoridated and unfluoridated communities are compared, the cost and nature of dental care are not significantly different; in fact, dentists' income in fluoridated communities is higher.

18.  Forst JA . Report by Bureau of Health Services, October 26, 1954. Dental comparison of school children of Kingston and Newburgh, NY after ten years fluoridation in Newburgh, finds better dental health in unfluoridated Kingston.

19.  Gish & Muhler. Effectiveness of stannus fluoride dentrifice on dental caries. J Dentistry for Children; Maysame as those using fluoridated dentrifice was the same as those using a non-fluoridated dentrifice.

20.  Glass. Secular changes in caries prevalence in two Massachusetts towns. Caries Research; 15:445-50, 1980. Decline in caries prevalence in nonfluoridated community equals that of fluoriedated community (`58-`78).

21.  Gray AS. Fluoridation: time for a new baseline? J Canadian Dent Assoc;53:763-5, 1987. Expected benefit of fluoridation not found.

22.  Kumar VK Green EL,Wallace W.Carnahan T. Trends in dental fluorosis and dintal caries prevalences in Newburgh and Kingston, NY. Am J Pub Health: May 1989; 79:565-69. Caries decline since ~55 in both communities; no advantage in fluoridated Newburgh. More fluorosis (thru age 12) in Newburgh.

23.  Schrotenboer. Editorial review, J Am Dent Assoc; 102, April 1981. No proof that current decline in cavities is due to fluoridation.

24.  Scott F. Editorial, Fluoridation: more evidence it is not safe or effective. Am Lab; June 1986.

25.  Tijmstra t et al. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology;6:227-30, 1978. When children are matched by fathers' occupation, candy consumption and toothbrushing habits, the supposed reduction in caries among fluoride users vanishes.

26.  Yiamouyiannis J. Water fluoridation and tooth decay: results from the 1986-1987 Natioal Survey of U.S. schoolchildren. Fluoride; 23:55-67, 1990. No difference.

27.  Ziegelbecker R. Fluoridated Water and teeth. Fluoride; 14:123-8, 1981. European scientists in evaluatin USPHS claims of fluoride dental benefits, find these supposed benefits are random, i.e. not dose-related, and are unconvincing whereas the toxicity (dental fluorosis) is dose-related.

28.  National Dental Caries Prevalence Survey of 1979-80. NIH Pub. No 82-2245, March 1982. Fails to demonstrate any advantage of artificial fluoridation.

29.  Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Special report No. 2, National Preventive Dentistry Demonstraton program 1983. Found no benefit from topical treatments tried in a four year test in ten differing communities.

  •  La toxicidad: el Fluoruro es tóxico, sin ningún limite de seguridad encontrado.

30.  Bucher JR et al. Results and conclusions of the National Toxicology Program's rodent carcinogenicity studies with Na-F. Int J Cancer; 48:733-737, 1991.

31.  Clark J. Taylor J. I.R. evidence for a strong hydrogen bond in the fluoride-uracil system. J Chem Soc Comm; pp 466-68, 1981.

32.  Clark R. Neutorphil iodination reaction induced by fluoride; implications fro degranulation and metabolic activation. Bllod; 57:No.5 (May) 1981.

33.  Colquhoun J. Disfiguring dental fluorosis in Auckland, New Zealand. Fluoride;17:66-72, 1984.

34.  DeChatelet et al. Effects of fluoride on the oxidativemetabolism of human neutrophils. Biochem Med: 25:106-13, 1981.

35.  Desai VK et al. Epidemiological study of goitre in endemic fluorosis district of Gujarat. Fluoride: 26:187-90,1993. Shows correlation of fluorosis with goiter.

36.  Edwards S et al. The crystal structure of fluoride-inhibited cytochrome c peroxidase. J Biolog Chem: 259:12984-84-8, 10 Oct 1984.

37.  Emsley et al. Ab initio calculations of uracil-fluoride systems. J Chem Soc Comm:pp 476-8, May 1982.

38.  Emsley et al. An unexpectedly strong hydrogen bond: ab initio calculations and spectroscopic studies fo amide-fluoride systems. Am Chem Soc: Jan 1981.

39.  Erickson. Mortality in selected cities with fluoridated and non-fluoridated water supplies. N Eng J Med:298:1112-6, 1978. Mortality rates, after adjusting for age, sex, race and all recognized socio-economic variables, are higher in fluoridated communities.

40.  Fleisch J, Haisch R Increase in antigen-induced release of slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis from guinea pig lung by sodium fluoride. Biochem Pharmacology; 29:1843-7, 1980.

41.  Gibson SLM. Effects of fluoride on immune system function. Comp Med Res;6:111113, 1992.Fluoride inhibits migrational ability of leucocytes.

42.  Goodman & Gilman, textbook. The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 3rd edition, pp815-7.

43.  Jagiello & Lin. Sodium fluoride as a potential mutagen in mammalian eggs. AMA Archives of Environmental Health: Vol 29, Oct 1974.

44.  Klein W et al. DNA repair and environmental pollutants. The institute for Biology, Research Center, Seibersdorf.

45.  Kumari DS & Rao PR. Red cell membrane alterations in human chronic fluoride toxicity. Biochem international; 23(4):639-48,1991. Increased lipid peroxidation.

46.  Lee JR. Gilbert's syndrome and fluoridation. Fluoride; July 1983. Switch from fluoridated to non-fluoridated water lowered bilirubin levels.

47.  Leverett DH. Prevalence of dental fluorosis in fluoridated and nonfluoridated Communities-preliminary investigation. J Pub Helath Dent; 46:184-7, 1986.

48.  Manocha et al. Cytochemical responses of kidney, liver and nervous system to fluoride ions in drinking water. Histochemical J; 7:343-55, 1975.

49.  Mohamed & Chandler. Cytological effects of sodium fluoride on mitotic and meiotic chromosomes of mice. Chem & Eng News, Sept 10, 1976.

50.  National Toxicology Program Technical Report on the Toxicoclogy and Carcinogenesis studies of sodium fluoride in F344/Nrats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP TR 393, NIH Pub. NO. 90-2848, 1990. Osteosarcoma in male rats, osteofluorosis in female rodents.

51.  U.S. Public Health Service. Review of Fluoride benefits and risks, report of the ad hoc subcommittee on fluoride, Feb 1991. Report of NTP study plus SEER data on osteosarcoma in young men.

52.  Spak CJ et al. Tissue response of gastric mucosa after ingestion of fluoride. Brit Med J. 298:1686-7, 1989.

53.  Susheela AK. Fluorosis-early warning signs and diagnostic test. Bull Nutr Foundation of India; 2 April 1989; 10:2. Multi-system early warning signs and description of sialic acid/glycosaminoglycans test.

54.  Susheela AK et al. Prevalence of endemic fluorosis with gastrointestinal manifestations in people living in some north-Indian villages. Fluoride; 26:97-104, 1993. Positive correlation noted.

55.  Susheela AK et al. Fluoride ingestion and its correlation with gastrointestinal discomfort. Fluoride; 25:5-22, 1992. ingested fluoride damages gastroduodenal mucosa and induces non-ulcer dyspepsia.

56.  Tstsui T et al. Sodium fluoride-induced morphological and neoplastic transformation, chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and unscheduled DNA synthesis in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Cancer Res; 44:938-41, March 1984.

57.  Waldbott GL, Lee JR. Toxicity from repeated low- grade exposure to hydrogen fluoride -case report. Clin Toxicol; 13:391-402, 1978.

58.  Yiamouyiannis J. Fluoridation and cancer: the biology and epidemiology of bone and oral cancer related to fluoridation. Fluoried; 26:83-96, 1993.

  • El fluoruro y el Hueso

59.  Alhava EM et al. The effect of drinking water fluoridation on the fluoride content, strength and mineral density of human bone. Acta Orthop Scand; 51:413-20, 1980.

60.  Arnala I. Bone frluoride, histomorphometry and incidence of hip fracture. Pub of the U. of Kuopio, Med Series Orig Rep, Kuopio, 1983.

61.  Arnala I. et al Effects of fluoride on bone in Finland: histomophometry of cadavar bone from low and high fluoride areas. Acta Ortho Scand; 56:161-6, 1985.

62.  Arnala I. et al. Hip fracture incidence not affected by fluoridation. Acta Ortho Scand; 57:344-8, 1986. No benefit found from fluoridation.

63.  Avioli LV. Fluoride treatment of osteoporosis. Postgrad Med: A Special Report, pp 26-27. 14 Sept 1987. Fluoride treatment has no place in the t of Osteoporosis.

64.  Baylink DJ, Bernstein DS. The effects of fluoride therapy on metabolic bone disease. Clin Ortho & Rel Res;55:51-85, 1967.

65.  Bernstein DS, Cohen P. Use of sodium fluoride in the treatment of osteoporosis. J Clin Endocr; 27:197-210, 1967.

66.  Chlebna-Sokol D & Czerwoinski E. bone structure assessment on radiopraphs of distal radial metaphysis in children with dental fluorosis. Fluoride; 26:3744, 1993. Dental fluorosis correlated with increased trabecular X-ray density.

67.  Cohn PD. An epidemiological report on drinking water and fluoridation. New Jersey Dept. of Health report, Nov 1992 Osteosarcoma in young men correlated with fluoridation.

68.  Cooper C. Wickman CAC, Barker DJR,& Jacobsen SJ. Water fluoridation and hip fracture. J Am Med Assoc; 266:513, 1991. Fluoridation correlated with increased hip fracture risk.

69.  Czerwinski E et al. Bone and joint pathology in fluoride- exposed workers. Archives of Environmental Health; 43:340-3, Sept/Oct 1988.

70.  Fisher RL et al. Endemic fluorosis with spinal cord compression: A case report and review. Arch Intern Med:\; 149:697-700, 1989. Spinal cord compression due to fluoride-induced osteosclerosis.

71.  Hedlund LR. Gallagher JC. Increased incidence of hip fracture in osteoporotic women treated with sodium fluoride. J Bone & Min Res; 4:223-5, 1989.

72.  Goggin JE et al. Incidence of femoral fractures in postmenopausal women. Pub Helath Rep:80:1005-12, 1965. No benefit found in fluoridated areas.

73.  Ho SC et al. Hip fracture rates in Hong Knog and the United States, 1988 through 1989. Am J Pub Health; 83:694-7, 1993. US hip fracture rates higher than in Hong Kong.

74.  Jacobsen SJ et al. Regional variation in the incidence of hip fracture, J Am Med Asso; 264:500-502, 1990. Review of 541,985 hip fractures in U.S. white women aged 65 years and older found strong correlation with fluoridation status.

75.  Jacobsen SJ et al. Hip fracture incidence before and after the fluoridation of the public water supply, Rochester, Minnesota. Am J Pub Health: 83:743-5, 1993.

76.  Kleerekoper M. Presentation at the October meeting of the FDA Advisory Committee, as reported in Medical World News, Oct. 23, 1989, p.42.

77.  Madans et al. The relationship between hip fracture and water fluoridation: and analysis of national data. Am J Public Health; 73:296-8,1983.

78.  Mahoney MC et al. Bone cancer incidence rates in New York State: time trends and fluoridated water. Am J Pub Health; 81:475-9, April 1991.

79.  Munzenberg KJ, Moller F, Koch W. Adverse effects of osteoporosis treatment with fluoride. Munchener Medizinische Wochenschrift; 133(5):56-8, 1991. Fluoride induced pain in extremeties as aresult of stress fractures and calciumphosphate deposition in periarticular tissue.

80.  National Toxicology Program fluoride/mammal study found increased incidence of osteosarcoma in fluoridated male rats. Reported by Medical Tribune, Nov 13, 1989.

81.  Riggs BL et al. Effect of fluoride treatment on the fracture rate in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. N Eng J Med; 322:802-9, 1990. No benefit to spine, increased fracture incidence in non-vertebral bones by fluoride.

82.  Schnitzler CM, et al. Bone fragility of the peripheral skeleton during fluoride therapy of osteoporosis. Clin Orthopaedics and Related Res. 261:268-71, 1990. Fluoride therapy induced spontaneous fractures three times that of untreated controls.

83.  Simonen O & Laitnen O Does fluoridation of drinking water prevent bone fragility and osteoporosis? Lancet; 24(2):432-4, 1985.

84.  Sowers FR et al. The relationship of bone mass and fracture history to fluoride and calcium intake: a study of three communities. Am J Clin Nutr; 44:889-98, 1986.

85.  Sowers FR et al. A prospective study of bone mineral content and fracture in communities with differential fluoride exposure. Am J Epid; 133:649-60, 1991.

86.  Suarez-Almazor ME et al. The fluoridation of drinking water and hip fracture hospitalization rates in two Canadian communities. Am J Pub Health; 83:689-93, 1993.

87.  Weingard TR et al. Periostitis due to low-dosefluoride intoxication demonstrated by bone scanning. Clin Nuclear Med; 16:59-61, 1991.

88.  Zong-Chen L, En-Huei W. Osteosporosis-and early radiographic sign endemic fluorosis. Skeletal Radiol;15:350-3, 1985.

  • Ningún uso  esencial conocido para el Fluoruro

89.  National Academy of Sciences. Fluorides, Chapter 5, Is fluoride an essential element? Washington D.C. 1971. The answer is ANO.

90.  Federal Register, p. 16006, 16 March 1979. All paragraphs previously classifying fluoride as " essential or probably essential" were deleted by FDA. Fluoride is so ubiquitous that no diet can be constructed for man that is deficient or lacking in fluoride. All authorities agree.

  •  Lectura recomendada.

91.  Fluoridation, The Great Dilemma by George L. Waldbott MD with Albert Burgstahler PhD and H. Lewis McKinney PhD. Forward by alton ochsner MD. Coronado Press, Inc. Box 3232, Lawrence, Kansas, 1978.

92.  Fluoride the Aging factor, 3rd Ed., by John Yiamouyiannis PhD. Health Action Press, 6439 Taggart RD., Delware, Ohio 43015, 1993.

93.  The Fluoride Question-Panacea or Poison? By Anne-Lise Gotsche. Stein & Day, Scarborough House, Briarcliff Manor, NY 10510.

94.  Fluoride: The Freedom Fight by Hans Moolinburgh MD. Mainstream Press, Edinburgh 1987.

95.  Fluoride in Australia: A Case to Answer by Wendy Varney . Hale & Iremonger, GPO Box 2552, Sydney, NSW, Australia, 1986.

96.  "Fluoridation of Water," special report by Bette Hileman, Chemical & Engineering News; 66(31):26-42, 1988.

97.  The Costs, Effects, and Benefits of Preventive Dental Care: A literature Review by Craig B. Foch, Rand Note N-1732-RWJF, December 1981.

98.  Environmental Fluoride 1977 by D Rose and JR. Marier, National Research Coucil of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIA OR6.

99.  Fluoridation In New Zealand by Bruce Cooins, New Zealand Pure Water Assoc. Box 2186, Tauranga, New Zealand.

100. Fluoridation, 1979 by Ohilip R.N. Sutton, D.D.Sc., FRACDS 163A New Street, Brighton, Victoria, Australia 3186.

101.  "Analyzing the Fluoridation Controversy" by Brian Martin in Social Studies of Science, Vol. 18(1988)pp. 331-63 (Sage Publications, 2111 W. Hillcrest, Newberry Park, CA 91320).

102. Scientific Knowledge in Controversy: The Social Dynamics of the Fluoridation Debate by Brian Martin, State University of New York Press, Albany NY, 1991.

103. Fluoride, Quarterly by the International Society for Fluoride Research, 216 Atkinson Rd., Titerangi, Aukland 7, New Zealand.

104.  The Fluoride Report, Quarterly by Truth About Fluoride, Inc, P.O.Box 219, buckeystown, MD 21717.


Salud Dental Para Todos

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Dirección: Od. Marcelo Alberto Iruretagoyena

Wilde Provincia de Buenos Aires. Argentina

 Revisado: Abril  2014